Naming alkanes concept chemistry video by brightstorm. Straight chain alkanes arent straight c c bonds are sp3 hybridized. Carbons on the end of a chain are attached to three hydrogens. Determination of the % fe in an unknown by titration. Chapter 2 alkanes key concepts nomenclature for unbranched alkanes dispersion london forces constitutional isomers. General methods of preparation of alkanes is the topic which has a potential of fetching a question in iit jee and jee mainadvanced examination very frequently. The nomenclature becomes more complex if the alkane branches. Alkanes 2 organic chemistry nowadays almost drives me mad.
Nomenclature of alkanes, alkenes and alkynes iupac. These are organic molecules that consist only of hydrogen and carbon atoms in a treeshaped structure acyclic or not a ring. There are two ways of writing a condensed structural formula. The branched alkanes make better gasoline than their con tinuouschain isomers because they give less knock in highcompression gasoline engines. In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin a historical name that also has other meanings, is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon. Pupils used these hint sheets to answer exam questions after. Chemistry 1110 organic chemistry iupac nomenclature of the approximately 32 million unique chemical compounds presently known, over 95% of them can be classified as organic.
Cyclic alkanes not all alkanes are straightchain alkanes in which the carbon atoms form long chains a cyclic alkane, or cycloalkane, is a hydrocarbon in which the carbon atoms form a closed loop. In such a case, there are several rules that you must follow to give the alkane the correct name find the longest. Alkanes alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons saturated. Alkanes when we combine the two high bond enthalpy and being nonpolar this makes alkanes quite unreactive alkanes dont react with acidsbases or oxidizing agents this is a useful trait and alkanes. In the laboratory heat the flask, with a bunsen burner or electric mantle this causes vapours of all the components in the mixture to be produced. Powerpoint and afl task for teaching alkanes and alkenes. Oxidative preparation of carboxylic acids silver nitrate alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes. For making models of alkanes, you can use toothpicks for bonds and plasticine balls for atoms. Alkanes alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons contain single. Alkane names, formulas, properties memorize sections. If two molecules can only be interconverted by breaking a bond and then reforming it somewhere else in the molecule, they are structural isomers.
In case of alkenes double bond linkages are seen and in alkynes, triple bond linkages are present. Organic chemistry science at yorkdale with jessica. Plastic products, gasoline, natural gas alkanes are necessary for us to have these. Any series that differs only by an increasing number of ch 2 groups is. First, it is necessary to count the number of atoms in the longest chain. Rules underlying iupac nomenclature of alkanes, alkenes.
The simplest alkane is methane ch 4, which consists of a single carbon atom covalently bonded to four hydrogen atoms. Naming highly branched alkanes iupac style organic chemistry i duration. Alkanes are chemical compounds that play a very important role in our lives. Draw the structural formula and line angle formula for the following molecules.
For alkenes, alkynes and aromatic hydrocarbons, spring models can be constructed. In other words, an alkane consists of hydrogen and carbon atoms arranged in a. A homologous series of alkanes may be formed by adding additional methylene. Naming alkanes can be difficult because each alkane consists of a parent chain and one or more branches. A branchedchain isomer has a lower boiling pointa branchedchain isomer has a lower boiling pointthan a straightchain isomer, and the more numerousthan a straightchain isomer, and the. General methods of preparation of alkanes wurtz reaction. Although many different types of nomenclature, or naming systems, were employed in the past, today only the international union of pure and applied chemistry iupac nomenclature is acceptable for all. Alkane and cycloalkane nomenclature i video khan academy. Ii alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes school of chemistry and. It deals with their formulae and isomerism, their physical. Number of carbons name structure 17 heptadecane ch 3 ch 2 15 ch 3 18 octadecane ch 3 ch 2 16 ch 3 19 nonadecane ch 3 ch 2 17 ch 3 20 icosane ch 3. Naming rules for organic compounds the names of organic molecules are divided into three parts. The root name, indicative of the number of carbon atoms in the longest continuous chain, which.1175 1456 935 1679 1139 1437 359 1288 454 1328 543 435 969 861 734 1557 457 354 721 639 554 1447 980 1439 1099 928 686 216 832 717 526 915 615 1541 1473 480 514 663 1204 1466 1286 839 32 1094 178 179 380 1299